“The best indication is the treatment of selective areas, not large areas, which remain stable and have not responded to conventional medical treatments.”
Vitiligo is a skin disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of white patches due to a lack of pigmentation.
It is a disease that affects 1% of the world population, being more frequent in those races that have a greater amount of pigmentation in the skin.
It is believed that there is a higher prevalence in women and the age of onset is between 10 and 30 years, although it can appear at any time in life.
What are the usual symptoms of vitiligo?
The usual symptoms of vitiligo are depigmented white spots on the skin since there are no melanocytes in these areas.
These spots are more sensitive to sunburn, so it is advisable to use sun protection.
The contrast with the pigmented areas of the skin creates a significant cosmetic problem for the patient.
What are the causes of vitiligo?
The reason why melanocytes disappear or stop synthesizing melanin is not exactly known.
Different theories have been formulated, mainly highlighting the one that considers this disease of autoimmune origin.
It has been observed that situations such as stress or trauma can precipitate the appearance of these injuries in predisposed patients.
It is sometimes associated with other types of diseases such as diabetes, pernicious anemia, Addison’s disease or thyroid diseases.
Types of vitiligo
- The focal vitiligo is one in which macules appear isolated and reduced in size and number in any location.
- The segmental vitiligo characterized macules are unilateral and usually follow a given distribution Widespread is the most common type and is characterized by multiple hypopigmented macules dispersed throughout the body surface of symmetrical arrangement.
- The acrofacial Vitiligo affects distal parts and facial region. The universal form is one in which few pigmented areas of the body remain.
How is vitiligo diagnosed?
The diagnosis is established in most cases by clinical examination of the patient’s skin.
Sometimes you can use the Wood or Slit Lamp . This is an ultraviolet light that makes areas without melanocytes appear bright white.
Sometimes a skin biopsy must be performed by a skin doctor in south delhi to rule out other autoimmune diseases, as well as blood tests with determination of thyroid hormones or vitamin B12.
How is vitiligo treated?
In limited areas, potent corticosteroids can be used, but always avoiding continuous chronic application.
When it comes to more extensive vitiligo, what is known as oral photochemotherapy is usually used, which consists of the administration of an oral drug (psoralen) plus exposure to UVA rays (PUVA). Repigmentation is achieved sometimes in 50% of cases.
Another type of treatment used in moderately spread vitiligo is the application of Kellina topically plus sun exposure. Never more than half an hour. The administration of amino acids such as phenylalanine both orally and topically accompanied by sun exposure, is another of the therapeutic modalities used in vitiligo.
Good results have also been obtained with topical calcipotriol, which is a drug used in psoriasis, and with calcineurin inhibitors.
Specialists from the Department of Dermatology
he Department of Dermatology at the Clínica Universidad de Navarra has extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of dermatological diseases.
We have extensive experience in highly precise surgical treatments, such as Mohs surgery. This procedure requires highly specialized personnel.
We have the latest technology for the dermo-aesthetic treatment of skin lesions, with the aim of achieving the best results for our patients.
Hair and nail diseases:
Hair diseases can be traced back to hormonal, medicinal, genetic or environmental influences.
- Hair loss (alopecia): describes a clearing of the hair on the head. Different forms are defined here:
- Androgenetic hair loss (AGA): genetic hair loss caused by male hormones that can be treated with medication.
- Alopecia areata: circular, locally limited, pathological and inflammatory hair loss that usually occurs in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life. In men, the beard area can also be affected. It is believed that this is an impaired reaction of the immune system. Topical immunotherapy or laser therapy promise good healing results.
- Diffuse hair loss: can be caused by hormone fluctuations, thyroid disorders, iron deficiency, infections, scalp disorders, certain medications or stress. Women are affected more often than men. As there are many causes for hair loss, there is no single treatment method.
- Hair deficiency (hypotrichosis): Growth disorders, disorders of hair change, ectoparasites or malformations lead to a lack of hair. Depending on the cause, an individually adapted form of therapy is selected.
- bacterial colonization of the hair shafts (Trichomycosis palmellina): mostly caused by poor hygiene, which shows up in the armpits and rarely on the pubic hair. Symptoms are a frosting-like, whitish-yellow coating on the hair shafts, which can also be red to dark brown in color. In the case of massive infestation, the disease can be accompanied by an unpleasant odor. As part of the treatment, the affected regions are shaved and healed through improved personal hygiene and the use of local antiseptics and acidic washing substances.
- Benign, calcifying skin tumor of the hair matrix (pilomatrixoma): which is found as a hard knot especially in children but also in other ages. Its contents consist of dead cells that collect in a cyst and can be surgically removed.
- There are also some types of fungal diseases (see Fungal diseases) that can affect hair growth. The pathogens attack the hair follicles or follicles.